Medieval Warfare VIII.5 with The Umayyad Caliphate versus the Byzantine Empire (674-718)
Before its fall in 1453, Constantinople would be subjected to numerous sieges, including two early offensives by the Umayyad Caliphate in the 7th and 8th centuries.
Theme: The Umayyad Caliphate against the Byzantine Empire (674-718)
- Peter Konieczny, 'Against the Empire - The Arabs bring war to Byzantium.'
- Georgios Theotokis, '“They did the same thing for seven years” - Was Constantinople besieged in 674-78?'
- Randall Moffett, 'Defenders of the Empire - The Byzantine soldier in the eighth century.'
- Georgios Chatzelis, 'Knowledge that kills - Byzantine military manuals and warfare.'
- Michael Edward Stewart, '"A furious storm fell upon them - The Arab siege of Constantinople, 717-718.'
- Kay Smith and Ruth R. Brown, 'The first chemical weapon? - Playing with Greek Fire'
- 'Readings: Byzantium during the rise of Islam.'